References and Links

Though this site is intended for the general public, it also contains links, references, and information for technical audiences.

Recommended for the General Public

  • Christopher, R.W.; 2000, Glacial and Periglacial Processes and Landforms, Chapter 17 of Geosystems, Prentice Hall
  • Ferguson, S.A., 1992; Glaciers of North America, Fulcrum Publishing
  • Harris, A.G. and Tuttle, E., 1990, Geology of National Parks, Kendall Hunt Publishing
  • Humprey, M. and Alean, J. , 1994; Glaciers; Cambridge University Press
  • McKnight, T. L. and Hess, D., 2000; Glacial Modification of Terrain, Chapter 19 of Physical Geography, Prentice Hall
  • North Cascades National Park / Mt. Baker Snoqualmie National Forest, 2001, Rising Mountains, Icy Waters, North Cascades Challenger 2001-2002 Visitors Guide, <http://www.nps.gov/noca/challenger/ch8.htm>, last accessed 05/15/02.
  • Pelto, M.S., North Cascade Glacier Climate Project, Nichols College, Dudley, MA., <http://www.nichols.edu/departments/Glacier/index.html>, last accessed 06/21/2002
  • Post, A. and LaChapelle, E.R., 2000, Glacier Ice, University of Washington Press
  • Seattle Municipal Archives Upper Skagit Watershed Photograph Project, <http://clerk.ci.seattle.wa.us/~archives/skagit/SKAGHOME.HTM>, Seattle Municpal Web Site, last accessed 05/15/02.
  • Tabor, R.W. and Haugerud, R., 1999, Geology of the North Cascades, Mountaineers

Technical References

  • Bahr, D., Meier, M., and Peckman, S., 1997, The physical basis of glacier volume area scaling, Journal of Geophysical Research, vol. 102, B9, p. 20,355-20,362.
  • Benn, D.I. and Evans, D.J.A., 1998, Glaciers and Glaciation, Arnold Publishers, 734 p.
  • Booth, D.B.; 1987; Timing and processes of deglaciation on the southern part of the Cordilleran Ice Sheet; in Ruddiman, W. and Wright, H.O. Jr., eds.; North America and Adjacent Oceans During the Last Deglaciation; The Geology of North America; Geological society of America; vol. K-3; p. 71-90
  • Braithwaite, R.J., 1990, Effects of glaciers on annual runoff east of Nuuk/Godthåb, West Greenland, Rap. Grønlands geol. Unders, vol. 148, pages 87-91.
  • Braithwaite, R. and Thomsen, H., 1989, Simulation of runoff from the Greenland Ice Sheet for Planning Hydroelectric Power, Ilulissat / Jakoshavn West Greenland, Annals of Glaciology, vol. 13, p. 12-15.
  • Chen, J. and Ohmura, A., 1990, Estimation of alpine glacier water resources and their change since the 1870s, Hydrology in mountainous regions - I. Hydrologic measurements, the water cycle, Proceeding of the two Lausanne Symposia, IAHS Publ. no. 193, p. 127-135.
  • Daly, 1912, Geology of the 49th Parallel, Geological Survey of Canada Memoir 38, 857 pp.
  • Daly, C. , Taylor, G. and Gibson, W., 2001, The Prism Approach to Mapping Precipitation and Temperature, web page < http://www.ocs.orst.edu/prism/ amsac97.html >, Oregon Climate Service Web Site <http://www.ocs.orst.edu >, last accessed 21 February 2001.
  • Daly,C., R.P. Neilson , and D.L. Phillips, 1994: A statistical-topographic model for mapping climatological precipitation over mountainous terrain, Journal of Applied Meteorology, vol. 33, p. 140-158.
  • Driedger, C.L. and Kennard, P.M, 1986, Ice volumes on Cascade volcanoes: Rainier, Mount Hood, Three sisters, and Mount Shasta, Professional Paper 1365, U.S. Geological Survey, 29 p.
  • Dyurgerov, M.B. and Meier, M.F., 1997, Year-to-year fluctuations of global mass balance of small glaciers and their contribution to sea-level changes, Arctic and Alpine Research, vol. 29, no. 4, p. 392-402.
  • Fountain, A.G., Krimmel., R.M., and Trabant, D.C., 1997, A Strategy for Monitoring Glaciers, Circular 1132, U.S. Geological Survey, 19 p.
  • Fountain, A.G. and Tangborn, W.V., 1985, The effect of glaciers on stream flow variations, Water Resources Research, vol. 21, p. 579-586.
  • Granshaw, F.; 2002; Glacier Change in the North Cascades National Park Complex, Washington USA, 1958-1998; [ M.S. Thesis], Portland, Oregon, Portland State University, 134 pages <http://www.glaciers.pdx.edu/granshaw/thesis.html>
  • Hall, M., 1994, Predicting the Impact of Climate Change on Glacier and Vegetation Distribution in Glacier National Park to the Year 2100, [M.S. Thesis], Syracus NY, State University of New York, 194 pages
  • Kuhn, M., 1993, Possible future contributions to sea level change from small glaciers, Climate and Sea Level Change, Observations, Projections, and Implications, Warrick, R.A. , Barrow, E.H. , Wigley, T.M. editors, p. 134-143.
  • Mackin, J.H. and Cary, A.S.; 1965; Origin of Cascade Landscapes; Washington Division of Mines and Geology, Information circular; vol. 41; 35 pages
  • Meier, M.F., 1984, Contribution of small glaciers to global sea level, Science, vol. 51, p. 49-62.
  • Meier, M.F. and Bahr, D.B., 1996, Counting Glaciers: Use of Scaling Methods to Estimate the Number and Size Distribution of the Glaciers of the World, In: Colbeck, S.C. (ed.): Glaciers, Ice sheets and Volcanoes, A tribute to Mark Meier, CRREL Special Report, 96-27, U.S.Army Hannover, New Hampshire, p. 89-94.
  • Meier, M.F. and Roots, E., 1982, Glaciers as a water resource, Nature and Resources, vol. 18, no. 3, p. 7-15.
  • Oerlemans, J. and J.P.F. Fortuin, 1992, Sensitivity of glaciers and small ice caps to greenhouse warming, Science, vol. 258, p.115-117.
  • Oerlemans, J., B. Anderson, A. Hubbard, P. Huybrechts, T. Jóhannesson, W. H. Knap, M. Schmeits, A. P. Stroeven, R. S. W. van de Waal, J. Wallinga and Z. Zuo. 1998. Modelling the response of glaciers to climate warming, Climate Dynamics, vol. 14 4, p. 267--274.
  • Østrem, G., 1991, Runoff forecasts for highly glacierized basins, The role of snow and ice in hydrology, Proceeding from the Banff Symposium, September 1991, p. 1111-1123.
  • Pelto, M. S., 1988, The annual Balance of North Cascade Glaciers Washington, U.S.A., Measured and Predicted Using and Activity-Index Method, Journal of Glaciology, vol. 34, no. 117, p. 194-199.
  • Pelto, M. S., 1993, Current Behavior of Glaciers in the North Cascades and Effect on Regional Water Supplies, Washington Geology, vol. 21, no. 2, p. 3-10
  • Post, A. , Richardson, D. , Tangborn, W.V. , and Rosselot, F.L., 1971, Inventory of Glaciers in the North Cascades Washington, Professional Paper 705-A, US Geological Survey, 19 pagesRiedel, J., Fountain, A., Krimmel, B., 1999, Glacier Monitoring Program: North Cascades, <http://www.nps.gov/noca/massbalance.htm>, North Cascades National Park Web site, Last accessed 5/15/02
  • Riedel, J.L. and Haugerud, R.A.; 1994; Glacial rearrangement of drainage in the northern North Cascade Range, Washington; Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs; vol. 26; no. 7; page A-307
  • Tangborn, W., 1980, Two models for estimating climate-glacier relationships in the North Cascades Washington, U.S.A., Journal of Glaciology, vol. 25, no. 91, p. 62-67.
  • Tangborn, W., 1980, Contribution of glacier runoff to the hydroelectric power generation on the Columbia River, Proceedings of the International Symposium on Computation and Forecasts of the Run-off from Glaciers and Glacierized Areas, Tbilisi Ed., 1980, Publication 39, p. 140-143
  • U.S. Geological Survey, Benchmark Glaciers, <http://ak.water.usgs.gov/glaciology/index.html>, USGS Water Resources Division Web Site, Last accessed 05/15/02